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By Edwin Corwin


"The sun set, but set not his hope:

Stars rose; his faith was earlier up."

...Ralph Waldo Emerson

THOSE EARLY SETTLERS must have possessed a certain sturdiness of character and ten­acity of faith which sufficed to carry them successfully through many days and weeks and even years of hardships, disappointments and discouragements Many of them, perhaps the greater ma­jority, experienced in fall meas­ure the vicissitudes, the "ups and downs." of pioneer life. The settler who gave up hope was lost. Truly, when the stars rose, "his faith was earlier up."

The pioneer men spent some­times as many as from fourteen to twenty days straight in log rolling. They often traveled miles from their own hearth and fire­side to help other early settlers in erecting their cabins. It was a matter of continuous hard labor, because the country was new and the land required constant effort in order that it night be cleared and brought to a state of culti­vation. Means and methods were, beside, of the crudest sort. But the land had to in attended to before real farm life could begin. Many a pioneer had to start practically on nothing. or next door to nothing.

The histories of the earliest families in the township would fill quite a monstrous volume without outside help, and, notwithstanding our desire not to slight any of them, we find it im­possible to include them all. So, before proceeding with the chron­icle of township events, let us examine a few more of those in­teresting family trees.

The glamour of adventure and daring, and a certain element of mystery, surrounds the coming of the grandsire of the Hawkins family from far across the sea to the shores of America and westward into the wilderness where gleamed the waters of Maxinkuckee.

Somewhere, in England, there was born, on September 26, 1782, a boy, a direct descendant, so it is claimed, of Sir John Hawkins, the fearless English admiral who fought against the Spanish Ar­mada, and of Sir John's son, Sir Richard, who with his followers tool. part in Drake's raid and put to flight a horde of pirates on the Spanish Main.*

"Be this as it may," one finds written in a little memorial of the Hawkins family, "this little boy grew to manhood and emigrated perhaps for adventure's sake, per­haps on account of religious per­secutions, to America, the land of the free, where all peoples were permitted to worship God accord­ing to the dictates of their own conscience.

"He first located in Connecticut and later in Cincinnati, Ohio. One night in Cincinnati, he put up at a little house or tavern in a part of the city known for years as ‘Over the Rhine,' or what was really just across the canal from the rest of the city. He was conducted to a bed in the loft, just one story up, and dur­ing the night was awakened by low voices in the room below. Being of an inquisitive nature, lie cautiously slipped out of bed, placed his ear near a small open­ing in the floor and overheard two men plotting to kill him, take what money he had and throw him in the canal.

"More cautious now than ever, he put on his clothing, carefully raised the window and let him­self to the ground, making a. safe get-away. Had he not done this there would be no reunion of the Hawkins family today, as that little boy, grown to manhood, was Grandfather Zadock Hawkins."

As was fitting, his youngest grandson and namesake, Zadock T. Hawkins, of Fairmount, Indi­ana, prepared as a memorial a little book, "One Hundred and Fifty Years of the Hawkins Fam­ily. 1783-1933." The writer goes on to tell how the family came to Lake Maxinkuckee.

"Grandfather Hawkins married Jane (maiden name un­known), probably in Cincinnati and to them five sons, Elisha, Ezra Eleazer, William, Zadock and Elijah, and four daughters, Cena, Malinda, Denica and Mary Jane Hawkins were born. "Leaving Cincinnati; they mov­ed across the Ohio river to Covington, Kentucky, the birthplace of William and Denica. Later they moved to a place near Lake Maxinkuckee, Indiana. where they spent the remainder of their lives.

  * Note:  Sir John Hawkins (1532-95), au English admiral, engaged in the slave trade; de­feated by the Spanish, 1567; treasurer of the navy, 1572; rear-admiral 1588; fought against the Armada; and died on a voy­age to the West Indies. Sir Rich­ard Hawkins (1562-1622), an English admiral son of Sir John Hawkins, commanded the "Duck" in Drake's raid on the Spanish Main, 1585; was captain of the "Swallow" in the attack on the Great Armada, 1588; sailed in the "Dainty" for the Pacific, 1393; plundered Valparaiso (not the one in Indiana), and, in San Mateo Bay, kept up a three days' tight with two Spanish galleons, but finally capitulated, and was for ten years a prisoner; was subsequently ransomed, was knighted by James I, and made vice-admiral at Devon.

"Grandfather Hawkins died February 26, 1859, at the age of seventy-six years and five months, and Grandmother Jane Hawkins died September 26, 1855, at the age of sixty-eight years, one month and twenty-nine days, both being buried in the Lawson graveyard about one mile east of the south end of Lake Maxinkuckee. But little is known of the life of the son, Zadock Hawkins, Jr., but in the Lawson graveyard, not far from the resting place of Grandfather Hawkins there is a tombstone whereon is inscribed these words 'Sarah, wife of Z. Hawkins, died April 6, 1857­ aged 42 years,' and it is presumed she was his wife."

The historian of the Hawkins family continues with the gene­alogy, tracing the lineage from Grandfather Zadock Hawkins, in the book compiled and published in connection with the Hawkins family reunion at Lake Maxinkuckee in 1933.

The Lawson graveyard referred to, is most generally known as the Washington cemetery. This is one of the old graveyards of the township, and the names of a number of the pioneer families, especially of the Washington neighborhood, appear on the headstones. The grave of Grand­father Zadock Hawkins is in the southwest corner of the cemetery, only a few paces north of the road. On the square-cornered headstone, there is carved at the top the opened Bible so often found on memorials and markers of the earlier days, with a simple inscription beneath: the name, Zadock Hawkins, the date of death, and the exact age, as the historian Hawkins has recorded.

The second row of graves from the west boundary of the ceme­tery is almost entirely made up of early burials of members of the Hawkins family. A plain square stone adjoining that of Grandfather Hawkins, to the north, marks the grave of Grand­mother Jane Hawkins. In the same row, to the north of this grave, are four stones of the Coplens family, then a break, beyond which the row is resumed, with a marker for Francis M. Owens, who died July 23, 1865, aged twenty-two years, five months and twenty-one days. In his early manhood, Ezra E. Hawkins, the second child of Grandfather Haw­kins, was married to Nancy Owens. There does not appear to be any Francis M. Owens in the line of descent, so far as the rec­ords go, and the identity of Francis has not been established, though there is small doubt as to close connection through Nancy Owens. In the row, next to the Owens marker is a small stone marked "S. F." Then, beyond, is a square stone with the carving of a circle enclosing a rose de­sign. This is the memorial for "Sarah, wife of Z. Hawkins, Jun." already referred to by the family historian. To the north, completing the row, are three small unmarked stone's.

The first Zadock Hawkins, the pioneer, was a great great-grand­father of the present fourth generation in and around Culver. He was born 152 years ago in 1934. Tracing the descent to Ezra E. Hawkins, now residing in Culver. we find that William W., the son of the pioneer Zadock, was the father of Ezra E., which after all is a very short line. William W., the third son of Zadock and Jane Hawkins, was born in Covington, Kentucky. March 6, 1822, which was 112 years ago, and died January 4, 1892, aged nearly seventy. He was buried in North Union Cemetery. His wife, Talitha A. Owens, was born Feb­ruary 2, 1827, and died Septem­ber 4. 1891, just four months be­fore the death of her husband. She was sixty-four years of age, and was buried beside her hus­band in North Union Cemetery, They spent all their married life on a farm in  this section. Members of their family married into the Fetters and Garn families.

Ezra E. Hawkins was the fourth child, born in this county, March 27, 1853. He was married June 12, 1874, to Mary Ann Ebling, his first wife, who died in 1911. Their children were Clarence, of Fostoria, Ohio; William Benja­min of Culver; Bertha Kimmel, of Mishawaka; Lloyd and Elza, of Culver; Lottie Marshall, of Culver; and Fred., deceased.

Ezra Hawkins married Mrs. Jennie Hollett in the fall of 1914. Edward E, a son of William Hawkins, was born January 4, 1882, in this county, and now resides in South Bend.

The Hawkins homestead was east of Lake Maxinkuckee. Ezra Hawkins locates it some distance south of the present Road 10 and a bit north of the Vonnegut orchards. It was on the dirt road that extends east from the lake at the K. K. Culver cottage, be­ing on the south side of that road and somewhat east of its junction with the Maxinkuckee village road. The land later used to be the Barney Adamson place. Zadock Hawkins came there the year President Buchanan took office, Mr. Hawkins recalls. That was 1857. But more than likely it was some time before that, for Ezra is now eighty-one. The home site east of the lake was the first place the family went to from Kentucky and the South, as near as Mr. Hawkins can recollect. "As near as I can tell," he says, "I was born there. It was the or­iginal Hawkins homestead. From there, we moved across the lake to a location west of the Doctor Durr farm, a little southwest of Culver, on the Doll Road."

The importance of this family in our history is chiefly because of the fact that the entire Ameri­can family centers in Union Township and the  first of the family, emigrant and pioneer, lies buried here.

Prominent among the descen­dants is Verne Larne Reynolds, son of John Reynolds and Phebe Etta Hawkins, who was twice nominated for President of the United States by the Socialist Labor party. Bret Harte Hawkins, an artist, has for over twelve years (prior to 1934) been night editor of the "Indianapolis Star."

            Jeremiah Mosher was born and reached years of maturity in the Empire State, but was married in Rutland County, Vermont to Sarah M. Craine, a native daugh­ter of that State. They became the parents of seven children, four sons and three daughters, two of whom were born in Marshall County, Indiana. Their early married life was spent, in Erie County, New York. In 1855, Jeremiah emigrated with his fam­ily to Indiana and established his home in Starke County where he purchased a farm of 250 acres. After spending three years there the family came on to Marshall County, this being in 1858, and Mr. Mosher bought 160 acres in Union Township. The land was then in its primitive state, but with the aid of his sons he in time cleared and improved it, and also added thereto a tract of eighty acres. This pioneer, Jeremiah Mosher, died in 1892 on his farm at the age of sixty-two. His wife survived him two years, dy­ing in 1884.

James L. Mosher, son of Jeremiah and Sarah, was born in Erie County, New York, Febru­ary 18, 1942, and came to Indi­ana when he was thirteen years of age. In his boyhood days he attended both the district and subscription schools of Union Township and assisted in clearing and cultivating the home farm. Being the oldest son, he was in early life obliged to contribute his share toward working the farm and supporting the family, which limited his schooling prin­cipally to a few months' attendance each winter at the country schools. He was married in 1862 to Sarah J. Thompson, who was born in Union Township, the daughter of one of the earliest pioneers, William E. Thompson She was the eldest of the Thompson children. In 1862, the same year he was married; James Mosher enlisted in the Union Army and saw active and gallant service until his discharge in 1865, when he returned to his Marshall County home. After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Mosher located on their home­stead farm of eighty acres, and here their five children were born. Ada B., one of the children of James L. and Sarah Mosher, became the wife of John C. But­ler, county surveyor in the latter part of the Nineteenth Century. Both are living in 1934 north­east of Lake Maxinkuckee. An­other daughter, Mariam, became the wife of T. M. Walker of Green Township. Tracy, a son, remained on the home farm. The Mosher lands in the 'seventies were on the east side of the Hibbard-Lake Maxinkuckee road. J. L. and M. F. Mosher had eighty acres, and M. F Mosher forty acres south and adjoining South of this yet, M. F. Mosher had a twenty acre tract, also 140 acres, and a long strip along the roadside consisting of forty acres was in the name of J. L. Mosher. On his homestead farm south of Hibbard, James L. Mosher passed to his eternal rest, May 16, 1926, at the age of eighty-four, and was buried just a little way over the rolling hills in the old Bucklew Cemetery.

            Few records of pioneer families in this part of the world are as complete and accurate as that of the Stahl family. Painstaking research on the part of family historians has made possible such a clean backward view of the pro­gress of the Stahl family out of the dim mists of the long past. The earliest known Stahl ancestor is Coelestine John Stahl, an alderman in the community of Monnekam, as was set down on the record of the Church of Oestelsheim an the state of Wuertemberg, Germany. The genealogical trail is followed, and next we come to John Michael Stahl, citizen and farmer, born February 9, 1679, and married in 1709 to Agathe Haug, daugh­ter of a doctor. Then we find John Jacob Stahl, magistrate and farmer, born January, 1716, who married Anna Katherine Schnaufer and died in 1794 at the age of seventy-eight. The trail leads on to John George Stahl, born October 7, 1743, who mar­ried Margareta Hofmayer, whose death occurred in 1809 at the age of seventy. The husband died July 29, 1822, aged seventy-eight. Then appears Grandfather Stahl--John Jacob, citizen and farmer in Oestelsheim, Wuertemberg. He was born April 1, 1774, and died November 5, 1842, aged seventy-eight. He married Katherina Magdalina Gehring in 1797. She was born April 4, 1779, and died December 19, 1840, aged sixty-one. They had seven chil­dren, five sons and two daugh­ters. Sarah, the oldest, was born in Oestelsheim December 31, 1800, and married Peter Stahl, a cousin, and thus never changed her family name. Her husband was a farmer. She died in 1862. The children were Henry, Sarah and Louisa. The mother's broth­ers and sisters, the rest of the seven children, were Henry, Louisa, John, Karl, Jacob Fred­erick and Ludwig. Charles Henry and Jacob Frederick came to this country.

Grandfather John Jacob Stahl was a taverner and a man of no small local distinction in his quaint old "home town" in Wuertemberg.

            But let us turn our attention to the pioneer, Jacob Frederick Stahl, born in Oestelsheim, Feb­ruary 7, 1819, and one of the principals in an August wedding in 1844. The bride was Christiana Gebring. The place was Gechingen in Wuertemberg. The first children, Regina and Frederick, were born in Gechingen. The father took up the trade of lock­smith, and in time built himself a shop, but hard times came, promise of hoped for expansion failed away, and ever before hint was the ogre of an increased bur­den of taxation, due possibly to the disturbed political condition of Europe, known in history as the "Wars of 1848." Sadly no doubt, but feeling it would be all for the best, the father and mother decided to leave it all be­hind and go forth and seek a home in a land of greater oppor­tunity. So they started on the great family adventure to the New World. Bundling the family into a wagon, they left their old home, June 3, 1852, driving to Oestelsheim, three miles distant, where they stopped over night with the old folks. In the morn­ing came the heart-rending farewells, then they journeyed on through France-- passing the cities of Heidelberg and the Rhineland--up the Rhine to Strasburg, then across country, through the Alsace-Lorraine that was destined to become the bat­tleground of nations some sixty years later, and so on to Paris and at length to Havre, the place of their embarking on a sailing vessel. They were fifty-two days at sea, but finally sailed into the harbor of New York and set foot on land at Castle Garden.

            Then by degrees they worked their way westward, to Phila­delphia, Pittsburgh, Greenville, and by covered wagon to Flat Rock and Fremont, Ohio. On a farm near there they came to rest for a spell, 1852-55, then pressed on to Indiana, to South Bend, Plymouth, and the vicinity of Leiters Ford and Delong. They settled on the "Doctor Durr place" about 1858, where the father cleared a tract of land in about three years. They remained there, near Delong, six years, then Father Stahl purchased a place in Union Township, about four miles from the Doctor Durr place in Fulton County. The final place of residence for the family consisted of eighty acres, about equally divided between uncultivatable land and land cultivatable. The house was built in 1858, and in October that year; the family began to occupy it. This was a frame house, quite a change from the old log house on the river bank, from which they had moved. This, at last, was "home." For full ten years, father, mother and children had been wanderers afar over land and sea.

            Jacob Frederick Stahl, while on a trip to Plymouth, January 14, 1874, a cold and bitter day, took a severe cold, which speed­ily developed into a case of ty­phoid pneumonia, baffling the skill of the family physician, Dr. G. A. Durr. He died January 24, 1874. His wife, Christiana, or "Grandma Stahl," as she was known in her later years, died May 2, 1903. She lacked about two months of being eighty-two. The children were seven in num­ber. One died at birth. The others were Lewis Frederick, Regina Barbara, Charles Henry and Sophia Margeretha, all four of whom were born in Gechingen, Germany; Louisa Christiana, born in Sandusky County, Ohio, and Jacob Peter, born in Fulton County, Indiana.

The Stahl lands in the 'seven­ties were located west of Lake Maxinkuckee. Approximately forty acres then belonged to F. Stahl's estate and were located on the east side of old Manatau Lake in Section 19. Nearer Marmont southwest  of town on the west side of the Doll Road in Section 20, L. F. Stahl had eighty acres. Along the outlet of Lake Maxinkuckee F. Stahl had eighty acres.

Valentine and Volpracia (Klein) Lidecker left their na­tive Germany and came to America in 1853, and after spending one year in Coshocton County, Ohio, came to Marshall County, where they resided the rest of their lives. Mr. Lidecker was a man of limited means when he first came to Union Township, but by thrift and industry succeeded in accumulating a com­fortable competence. He and his wife were consistent members of the German Reformed Church, and had a wide circle of friends in Union, West and adjacent counties. "Mr. Lidecker died in 1879. One of the five children, Valentine A., was born in Ger­many, December 8, 1848, and came to Marshall County when but five years of age. He grew to manhood on the farm, attending the country schools at intervals, and began life for himself with a limited supply of this world's goods. But he worked hard and economized and in time was comfortably fixed, owning 340 acres of valuable land, a greater part of which was well improved. Prior to 1880, the Valentine Lidecker lands in Union Town­ship were in the far northeastern corner, in the lower part of the old Menominee Indian Reserve. There were 155 acres in Section 36, and westward in Section 35, a plot of 68 acres and another of 19 1/2 acres. Valentine A. Lidecker first married Emma A. York, daughter of George York, of Un­ion Township, She died in 1872, and in 1875 he remarried, his second wife being Permelia Rightley, daughter of Peter Rightley.

            Joel and Amelia (Sampsell) Cromley were both natives of Pennsylvania, but early moved to Sandusky County, Ohio. Joel Cromley was born in Union Coun­ty, Pennsylvania, was reared and married there. There were five children: John F., Jacob J., Sarah J.. Marion Miles, and Merritt J. The two youngest were born in Union Township and all were reared here. From Sandusky County, Ohio, in the early 'fifties, Joel Cromley, his wife and children came to Marshall County, where he purchased laud in Un­ion Township. The year of their coming to this vicinity has been variously stated.  John F. Cromley says it was in the fall of '54. "I was nine years of age when we came here from Ohio," he recalls. As he was born in December, 1845, he would not have lacked many days of being nine in the fall of '54. But perhaps it was '55 when they came. Historians differ. A. C. Thompson says it was in '56 that the Cromleys came, and Daniel McDonald set it down in one of his works as 1847. At any rate, early in the 'fifties would hit it quite square­ly, so we shall let it go at that. "The family located five miles southwest of Culver, within about two miles of the present com­munity of 'Monterey," says John F. Cromley. "That was in Fulton County, our first place of residence after coming from Ohio. In the spring of '55 we moved into Union Township and settled on our farm in the far southwestern part of the township. The farm adjoined Fulton and Starke coun­ties, being in the very corner of the township. We moved in the fall of '69 to what is now Culver."

Joel Cromley purchased eighty acres in Union Township, and also entered a tract of forty. He gradually cleared and improved his land, and on his homestead spent the remainder of his life, dying at the, age of eighty-two. He was a member of the United Brethren Church, His wife, Amelia (Sampsell) Cromley died in 1890.

Of the five children, John F.. known in later years as "Neighbor" Cromley, was the senior. He was born December 17, 1845, and in 1934 is still living. At the time this is written, he approach­es his eighty-ninth birthday, which will be celebrated in De­cember. Although he has just been through a spell of disability in the hospital, his physical con­dition is promising and his in­domitable spirit is unshaken. For he is made of the real old pio­neer stuff. He resides on Lake View Street in Culver. "Neighbor" Cromley is one of the last of the veterans of the Civil War in this part of the county, and practically the last remaining in the township. Only two answered the roll call in 1934.

            Jacob J. Cromley was born September 17, 1850, according to Thompson, the historian; McDonald said it was in '49. As was his brother John, Jacob was born in Ohio, in Sandusky County to be exact. He grew to manhood on the farm in Union Township, was educated in the public schools of this section, and in his boyhood days assisted his father to clear and improve his land. He had a taste for the medical profession and began studying it under the instruction of Dr. Kelsey of Pulaski County, afterward attending a course of lectures at Indian­apolis. He made commendable progress, but in time abandoned the idea of becoming a "medico." In 1885, he left the farm to be­come a business man in Burr Oak, where he started a drug store at first, later adding groceries and general merchan­dise. He bought the drug store of old Dr. D. C. Knott. His Burr Oak business became well es­tablished, and he erected there a store building to accommodate it. The general store became widely known, and its owner's reputa­tion as a fair-dealing and forward-looking merchant grew with the years. Jacob Cromley was elected township trustee in 1886. His wife was Mary Loring of Starke County.

            Sarah J., a sister, became the wife of Henry Romig of Union Township. Marion Miles died in 1905. The younger brother, Merritt J., remained on the home farm for a number of years, and is still living in 1934, his resi­dence being at the home of Oscar Zechiel.

Prior to 1880, the lands of J. Cromley were in the extreme southwestern corner of the town­ship. There were lands also in the name of H. Cromley near the Cromley Cemetery in  the Kaley schoolhouse or Zion neighbor­hood. Two separate families of Cromleys lived near the old cemetery.

In the neighborhood northeast of Lake Maxinkuckee, early oc­cupied by the Thompsons, Bucklews, Moshers, Cavenders, Hartmans and other families whose names figure in our history, Jacob E. Myers settled in 1860 or thereabouts. He was born in Germany March 14, 1846. When he was eight years of age, his parents left the fatherland with him for America, but the father died before reaching New York. Thus suddenly bereft and with sma11 resources at their command, the widow and her young son bravely faced the situation, and were enabled after a time to reach Marion, Ohio, and locate near that place. In 1860, they transferred the scene of their struggles to Marshall County, where they were found at the out­break of the Civil War. Jacob E. Myers enlisted in 1864 in the 48th Indiana Volunteer Infantry, Company D, and saw active ser­vice in some of the most strenu­ous, campaigns of the war, taking part in Sherman's march from Atlanta to the sea, and north­ward through the Carolinas to join the massed forces of Grant pressing down front Virginia. After the war, he returned to Union Township and devoted himself to the carpenter's trade until his marriage in the fall of 1866, when he took up farming. In 1876 he purchased his 146-­acre farm, originally wooded land, and for the succeeding seven years, while clearing it of its heavy timber, also operated a saw mill. As late as the beginning of the Twentieth Century, no less active than he was thirty or forty years previous, he could be found at work on his farmlands clearing the last of his fields that remained to be cleared. It was while engaged in such tasks that a rather peculiar thing happened. It was in the summer of 1905. Mr. Myers met with quite a seri­ous accident, from which he re­covered, however, in a surprisingly short time. He was then living south of Rutland. It was the evening of August 22nd that the accident occurred. During the summer he had been clearing a. field of stumps by the use  of dynamite cartridges. He placed one under a stump, then drilled a hole in the stump, where he placed the second one. When fir­ing them, evidently only the cart­ridge under the stump exploded, while the one imbedded in the stump remained intact. He was engaged in burning the stumps when this unexploded cartridge went off and part of the charge struck him in the face, which was considerably burned. But there were no other serious injuries. This peace-time bombardment was a reminder of the days of '65.

            In a comparatively recent account of Mr. Myers' life, it was said that he came to this coun­try when six years old and settled in Ohio with his mother. His father had died at sea. At the age of fourteen, Mr. Myers came to Marshall County and as an orphan worked for fifty cents a day or the equivalent in grain, as few farmers in those days had any ready cash. He helped clear the timber from what was later the Busart farm. He was married October 28, 1866, to Sarah A. Kaley, daughter of a pioneer, Reuben Kaley, and started farm­ing on the farm owned in later years by G. H. Fifield, which Mr. Myers purchased for five dollars an acre. Later he and his wife moved to the farm where he liv­ed till his death and where, in 1934, his widow is still residing. At the time of Mr. Myers' death it was believed that he and his wife were the oldest married couple in the county. When they celebrated their golden wedding anniversary in 1916, over one hundred friends joined in observing the happy occasion.

Widely known as a cattle fancier and farmer, Mr. Myers was one of the most prominent breeders of pure bred polled shorthorn cattle in the State and worked with the goal constantly before him of some day winning a national prize. This he accom­plished in 1927 when he attract­ed national attention by taking first prize with his yearling, "Johnny Logan," at the Interna­tional Livestock Show in Chicago.

At his farm home northeast of Lake Maxinkuckee, Jacob E. Myers passed away, August 21, 1931, at the age of eighty-five. In the afternoon he was found unconscious by the side of the yard swing. He died about fif­teen minutes later. Apoplexy was the direct cause of death, but i11 health had been his lot for sever­al years.

            "The theme of that song of fifty years ago of the grand­father's clock that stopped when its owner died is no more striking nor unusual than that of the American flag flying at half mast in Mr. Myers' yard on the day that he passed away," commented the Culver Citizen. "He was an intensely patriotic Civil War veteran and it was his daily joy to hoist the Stars and Stripes to the top of his high flag pole and to salute the Colors with his typical snap and vigor. On Friday he raised the flag only to half mast, the mourning position for soldiers who answered their last roll call, and that afternoon he died."

Surviving him were the widow and four children, Five other children had gone on before him. Those who remained were William H. Myers of Plymouth, Mrs. Clara Swanson of South Bend. Mrs. Pearl Custer of Mishawaka, and Mrs. Mary Mikesell of Culver; also a brother, Gottlieb Myers, of Michigan; twelve grandchildren and ten great grandchildren. He was laid to rest in Poplar Grove Cemetery.

            Next, a glimpse of the Shaw family ancestry reveals to us the figures of Henry Shaw and his wife, Margaret (Williams) Shaw, both natives of Pennsylvania, who were the parents of William Shaw, the Union Township pio­neer. Henry Shaw was a carpen­ter by trade, and a pioneer of Richland County, Ohio, having settled in Mansfield as early as the year 1812. During the War of 1812, he experienced all the vicissitudes and dangers incident to a life on the frontier in such troubled times. He subsequently became a resident of Hancock County, Ohio, when that part of the State was a wilderness. After residing there and elsewhere for a number of years, he came to Indiana in 1842, settling in Wabash County, where he cleared a farm and followed the pursuit of agriculture. Ten years later he moved to Starke County, where he died about 1872. "Mr. Shaw was a man of great physical strength and endurance," says A. C. Thompson, "and a representa­tive pioneer of the period in which he lived. His wife, whom he married in Richland County, Ohio, died in 1870." They had a family of ten children. Five of them were living in 1890, when Thompson wrote of the family. Those five were Stephen, William, Joseph, Mrs. Elizabeth Rist, and Henry B. Shaw.

William Shaw, who became one of the. substantial farmers and representative citizens of Marshall County, was born in Richland County, Ohio, December 1, 1822. grew to manhood in that State, obtained his educational training in such schools as the country offered at that time, and began life for himself as a teach­er, in which calling he continued for a number of years successfully. In 1842, he came to Wabash County, Indiana, with his par­ents, Henry and Margaret Shaw, and in 1848 was married, in Noble County, to Mary Gilchrist, daughter of John Gilchrist, a pio­neer of Richland County, Ohio, who in an early day moved to Kosciusko County, Indiana. Mrs. Shaw died in that county in September. 1852, after which Mr. Shaw again resumed the profes­sion of teaching. This he continu­ed for some time in Marshall County, at the place then known as Burr Oak Flats. He subse­quently engaged in farming, and in 1863 moved to his place north of Lake Maxinkuckee in Union Township, where he developed a splendid farm. Mr. Shaw's second marriage was solemnized Au­gust 14, 1854, with Nancy Thompson, daughter of Job and Sarah Thompson, of this county and vicinity. The Thompsons were a pioneer family of the township, settling here, as early as 1837. They moved here from Kentucky. Nancy came to this township when but seven years of age.

A certain area surrounding the Shaw homestead above Lake Maxinkuckee came in time to be known as the "Shaw neighbor­hood" and the district school there as the "Shaw schoolhouse." In the 'seventies, the property of William Shaw in that vicinity consisted of two plots of land, one of eighty acres and another of forty acres adjoining, both in Section 10 about three-quarters of a mile above the northern tip of Lake Maxinkuckee. Mr. Shaw lived on the middle forty. That was originally some of the Thompson land, which in earlier days extended over the area cover­ed by the 120 acres of Shaw land. At the later period, prior to 1880, the estate of Peter Shaw, a broth­er of William, had 160 acres in Section 5, northwest of the lake on the Burr Oak Flats. This is now, in 1934, the Peter Doll farm.

            Turning to a much earlier per­iod in the Shaw family history, we find among the ancestor. di­rectly back, two British soldiers. The story is told that the great grandfather of Mrs. Charity Stahl, a descendant living today in Culver, was a British regular in the Colonial War. He was a Shaw. His brother also was a soldier. but during the war or at its beginning they became separated and never met or heard from each other again. The other bro­ther was completely lost track of; whatever became of hint eventually is a mystery. He may have died in the war, or he may have survived and drifted off to no one knows where. He was one of those individuals separated from a family as is quite often found in tracing lineages. They are the twigs torn from the fam­ily tree by some trick of fate or act of Providence.

William Shaw, a Democrat, was a potent factor in local politics. He represented Marshall County in the legislature of 1883. He also filled various official positions in Union Township from time to time. He died March 19, 1895, at the age of seventy-two. His wife, Nancy, was born June 26, 1830, and died February 14, 1900, at the age of sixty-nine.

The children of William and Nancy Shaw were five in number. Only one of them, Mrs. Charity Stahl of Culver, is living today. Stephen A., deceased, was mar­ried to Elizabeth Gibbons, who is still living in 1934 in the north­eastern section of the town of Culver. James C., who was a Burr Oak merchant, died some years ago. His wife was Elizabeth Butler. She is still living at Santa Ann. Alexander B., who has since passed away, went to Colorado to live. Della died early. She married L. C. Wiseman, who is today a resident of Culver. Her death oc­curred in 1889. One child, Clyde, survived her. He was the only child, and is living now in Kansas City.

Turning back to the preceding generation, we find that ten chil­dren were born to Henry and Margaret (Williams) Shaw. All ten had passed away by 1934. Stephen, the first child, lived to be ninety. The other nine children were Mary, who died quite young: Sally, John, William, Nancy, Peter, who died in war times, in the 'sixties; Joseph, Elizabeth, and Henry B. The record of the children of these children runs as follows:

In 1934, the children of Stephen Shaw are five living and four deceased. James had four boys and one girl, all of whom are living. Della had one boy. Alexander had six children, five of whom are living and one dead. Peter had one child, a girl. who was raised by Thomas Houghton. In late years she has been living in or near New Orleans. 

            Particularly interesting is the story of the Clifton family. Nath­an Clifton was among the early settlers of Union Township. He came from the East and first settled on a farm where the Poplar Grove Church is now located. In fact, it was he and the farmer east of him who gave the land for the old Poplar Grove graveyard. They each gave one-half an acre. The year of Nathan Clifton's com­ing to this section is not record­ed, so far as is known, but it was very early. Some there are, who say that it was before the Indians went away from the shores of Maxinkuckee, and that was in the late 'thirties. At any rate, it must have been a long. long time back.

Nathan Clifton was a young man when he came here. It has been related, having been carried down in the family as a sort of tradition, that when he came, one of his nearest neighbors was a Clifton too. His nearest neighbor was two miles or more away, and those others who could be count­ed near enough to be "neighbor­ly" were about six miles away, mostly up by Wolf Creek. Among the first of the settlers of the Wolf Creek neighborhood, those who came not long after the first settlement there in '35, was Thomas K. Clifton. Nathan and Tom became the warmest of friends. They were evidently not in the least related. Anyway, they never were able to discover any family ties between them. And the odd thing about it, so it is told, both were orphans, both had been "put out," and both happened to come to this part of the wide uni­verse pretty nearly the same time. They got to think of each other almost as brothers, it is related. Some of the descendants of Thomas Clifton are today residents of Plymouth, while descen­dants of Nathan are to be found still in the Poplar Grove neigh­borhood. Lewis Clifton lives there, close to the church that has been so closely associated with the family from the begin­ning. Lewis, who descended from Nathan Clifton, married Myrtle Lowry. The Clifton homestead is just south of the present State Road 10. Nathan Clifton had con­siderable land in the 'seventies in Section 13, near the Poplar Grove Church and the eastern boundary of the township. When he died, in 1883, he was the owner of 140 acres. These lands are located east of the north end of Lake Maxinkuckee. Where the Poplar Grove Church is located, Nathan Clifton had a tract of 99 acres on the south side of the road, in the southeast corner of the intersec­tion of Road 10 and the road to Rutland. To the west he had a 39 1/2-acre plot, in the southwest corner of the same road intersec­tion, where old District School No. 9 was located.

Nathan Clifton was born January 1, 1818. He was married on May 14, 1840, to Mary Smith, who was a daughter of Charles and Lettie (Gillain) Mary was born January 26, 1820. (The year has been given elsewhere as 1819). Her parents, who were married in 1818, early settled in Marshall County. Charles Smith died in 1867. His wife, Lettie, passed away in 1877. From the Clifton family record, we glean the following information regard­ing the children of Nathan and Mary Clifton: Charles Wesley, their oldest boy, was born February 24, 1841, and married Ada­line Cole, October 11, 1866. He became a minister in north­western Iowa.  Sarah Ann was born June 11, 1842, and was married, August 5, 1860, to Isaac N. Voreis.  Nancy Jane was born July 30, 1843. She became Mrs. Mitchel of Newel, Iowa. Letty Ellen was born May 11, 1845, and was married to Pulaski Wickizer, December 18, 1867. James Henry was born June 11, 1846, and died March 19, 1847. Mary Elizabeth died on June 15, 1852. Leander, who was born February 1, 1848, was mar­ried to Paysie Valke, December 30, 1871, Hugh S. was born Jan­uary 15, 1850, and was married to Sarah J. Lewis, October 8, 1872. Thomas J., born May 23, 1853, was the youngest boy. He was married, August 25, 1878, to Idella M. Snider. At the time of his death, this couple had enjoy­ed twenty-two years of married life. The wife, Idella Margaret, was the daughter of Caroline Snider, and was born in Jasper County, Indiana, May 15, 1861. She died October 14, 1907. John Thomas Clifton, the husband, passed away December 6, 1900. Both he and his wife were buried in Poplar Grove Cemetery. There were three more girls in the Clif­ton family. Julia married John Clifton. Both had the same fam­ily name, but were not related. Eliza Isabelle was born in Union Township, near Poplar Grove, February 21, 1859, and was mar­ried to Cyrus Ezra Hibray, Janu­ary 14, 1877. There were five children. She united with the M. E. Church at the age of thirteen. Later, with her husband, she joined the Methodist Protestant Church at East Washington, where she worshiped till the time of her death. She passed away at Maxinkuckee, March 30, 1912, aged fifty-two, and was buried in Poplar Grove Cemetery. Her hus­band is still living at his home in Maxinkuckee. Rebecca, the last of the Clifton girls, married I. C. Brooke of Plymouth. She was born January 1, 1861, and died September 4, 1918.

The twenty-ninth annual reun­ion of the Clifton family was held August 19, 1934, when ninety-five members gathered at the country home of Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Thompson, the old Clifton homestead. Relatives were pres­sent from South Bend, Rochester, Akron, Tiosa, Hibbard, Argos, and Culver. Will Lowry was chos­en president and Mrs. Helen Hul­linger was named secretary-­treasurer. The 1935 reunion was planned to he held at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Harley Walburn of Akron. Mrs. Savila Clifton, of Plymouth, was the oldest relative attending in 1934, while Max Hagen, of Argos, was the young­est.

Nathan Clifton, the pioneer died June 29, 1883, aged 65 years, 5 months and 29 days.

One of the most familiar family names in this part of the country is that of Wiseman. Lor­enzo D. and Agnes (Hufford) Wiseman were both natives of Ohio. Samuel Wiseman, father of L. D., was a native of Pennsyl­vania and an early settler of Ohio having located in Fairfield Co., a great many years gone by.  Lorenzo was born in 1812. In his younger days, he followed the carpenter's trade, but later en­gaged in farming in Hancock County, Ohio, where he lived un­til 1867. In the fall of '67, he came to Union Township, locat­ing in Marmont (Culver). It was here that his death occurred, on January 23, 1890. "He was a man of high standing in the com­munity where he resided," says A. C. Thompson, "and for sixty years was an active member in the Methodist church, in which he held various official positions, in­cluding that of class leader and Sunday-school superintendent. He assisted in the organization of a number of congregations, superin­tended the construction of sever­al church edifices, and in addition to his other religious work, ren­dered valuable assistance, in pub­lic worship by his superior gift of song."

L. D. Wiseman was twice mar­ried. First time, he was wedded to Frances Hooper, in June, 1834. They had seven children, of whom the following were living as late as 1890: William T., a practicing physician of Coffey County, Kansas; Elsie, widow of A. S. Stradley of Dunkirk, Ohio; and Charlotte, wife of T. J. Rose of Henry County, Ohio. By his second marriage, which was with Agnes Hufford, Mr. Wiseman had seven children. These were Mrs. Samuel Allen of Pulaski County, Indiana; Lorenzo D., who died in the winter of 1874, leaving a widow, Frances (Wilhelm) Wise­man, and one child, Rosa E.; Mary C., wife of J. H. Hill of Kansas; B. W. S., who became the well-known doctor; Hannah M., wife of Rev. M. H. Wood; Samuel J., the druggist of old Marmont; and Livingston C., resident of Marmont and still a resident of Culver.

In the 'seventies, during L. D. Wiserman's early residence in Union Township, he was the owner of a tract of land just west of Marmont. It was a long, narrow strip of around 76 acres, due west of town. It was long east and west, and reached to the Doll Road, a bit outside the limits of the old community.

            Dr. B. W. S. Wiseman was born in Hancock County, Ohio, June 24, 1852. He remained in his native State until fifteen years of age, during a part of which time he attended the com­mon schools. Later, he continued his studies in the high schools of Napoleon, Ohio, and Plymouth, Indiana. For some time he taught school, meanwhile read­ing medicine under the instruction of Doctors Edmonds and Durr of Marmont. In the winter of 1876-77, he entered the Uni­versity of Michigan medical de­partment, studied at Ann Arbor for some time, then became a student in the college of physici­ans and surgeons at Keokuk, Iowa, graduating in March, 1880. Subsequently completing a course in the college of physicians and surgeons at Chicago, he began the practice of his profession at Marmont. He continued here for a short time, then moved to La­Porte County, but soon returned to Marshall County. In 1885 he removed to Chicago, where in ad­dition to other professional duties, he became interested in the Convalescent Women's Home. Being compelled by ill health in his family to leave the city, lie again located in Marmont in 1887. He remained in this community until his death. He was married in 1877 to Rose M. Bus­well of Marmont. The children are Charles S., Gertrude A., Don­ald H., James S., Clara R., Allie E., and Ethel H.

This is an interesting family. The doctor once wrote: "My chil­dren are all sharers in the ten­dency towards things musical, which is traditional with the family." Charles Sumner, the old­est boy, was born at Culver, March 22, 1879, attended the public school and was a cadet at Culver Military Academy for three years. He figured promin­ently in the conduct of the Acad­emy band, and was teacher of brass instruments and assistant to the musical director for two years. In 1901 he began the study of medicine, and in 1905 gradu­ated from the Fort Wayne College of Medicine. He located at Lake­ville in 1907, and practiced some time there. He is now at Union Mills, Indiana. He was married in 1906 to Irma Garver of Fort Wayne. His sister, Gertrude Ag­nes, was born February 28, 1881, at Culver, was educated in the public schools and received special instruction in music at the Ohio Northern University, under the tutorship of the celebrated Professor Owens. She was married, November 11, 1899, to Clarence D. Behmer, who in re­cent years retired as assistant postmaster at Culver, where they still reside. The doctor's next son was Donald Hughes, born June 10, 1883, who died in Chicago, February 5, 1887, while his fath­er was practicing there. James Stanley was born August 27, 1885, and died in Culver on September 3, 1890. Clara Belle, (born December 27, 1887), after graduating from Culver High School, taught for a while in the public schools. She became the wife of R. Shafer of Lakeville. Allie Elsinore, who was born June 12, 1890, graduated from Culver High School and entered Miami University in Ohio, taking special instruction in music. She is now Mrs. Ray Fisher of Cul­ver. Ethel Huldah, the youngest, was born August 6, 1893.

Dr. Wiseman's widow is still living in Culver. Before her mar­riage site wits Roseline Mary Buswe1l, daughter of John and Clara (Wilford) Buswell, both of English birth and ancestry.

            Dr. Wiseman took a great deal of interest in the history of his family. He spent years of spare time in exhaustive research, com­municated with members of the family near and far, made numer­ous trips in search of data, fin­anced the undertaking, and final­ly wrote a book, "Wiseman Gen­ealogy and Biography," which with its 134 pages is one of the most complete and authentic works of its kind to be found any­where. In this volume, the writer traces the lineage of the Wiseman family in America, mention­ing also the Wisemans of history and the Wiseman baronetcy. Con­cerning the American Wisemans, lie goes 'way back to Isaac Wise­man, who with his wife Elizabeth and a large family of sons and daughters, emigrated from Berks County, Pennsylvania, to Rock­ingham County, Virginia, soon after the War of the Revolution. "Tradition says that he, or his immediate progenitor, came to the colonies from Wales," the doctor writes. "The name, how­ever, is not Welsh, but decidedly English or Anglo-Saxon, and is probably of remote. Saxon or Ger­man origin, the resemblance to the German 'Weismann' favoring this assumption."

Isaac Wiseman's children were eleven in number. The family did not remain long in Rockingham County, most of them moving along with the parents to Monroe County, now a part of West Vir­ginia. John, one of the sons, was a Methodist minister, commission­ed by Bishop Ashbury. He served in both the Colonial militia and in the Continental line in the Revolution, and was with Wash­ington in the historic winter quarters at Valley Forge. It is through Samuel Wiseman, the fifth son of Isaac and Elizabeth, that the Union Township Wise­mans trace their descent. He was born in Berks County, Pennsyl­vania, February 15, 1771, and in his boyhood accompanied the fam­ily to Rockingham County, Vir­ginia. When he grew to manhood, he married Mary Bowyer who was of German descent. Her parents lived probably in Maryland. In about the year 1805, Samuel and his family left Virginia and mov­ed to Fairfield County, Ohio, settling on Walnut Creek near where New Salem now stands.

            It is at this stage of the story of the family that Dr. Wiseman throws light, most interestingly, on the quality of stuff of which his pioneering forbears were made. Speaking of Samuel, his grandfather, the doctor says: "He was one of the hardy pioneers who, following up the explora­tions of Daniel Boone and Gen­eral Simon Kenton, planted the banner of civilization deep in the primeval forests of the great Buckeye State. His little family lived in the wagon while he cut logs and built a cabin, the nearest neighbor being miles away." How much this is like the experiences of the first comers to Union Township. The doctor quotes an incident from a history of Fair­field County: "James Hooper, coming up one day to look at their land, heard the sound of an axe to the west, and following the sound, came to a man cutting logs for a cabin, his family living in his wagon in the woods. In an­swer to the inquiry as to his name, he answered, `Samuel Wiseman.' On returning to his father's cabin, in the Teal settle­ment, James told his mother the joyful news, that he had found a neighbor. 'What is his name?, she said. ‘Samuel Wiseman,’ James replied. said she, he has a wise name; would to God he is a wise and good man'."

The doctor continues the story: "Here he and his wife 'Polly' braved the perils and endured the privations to which the early settlers were subjected and walk­ed their Christian lives with for­titude and patience. He raised a large family of sons and daugh­ters all of whom have passed in­to the great beyond years since. The devotional was largely pre­dominant in his nature and he was possessed of the highest de­gree of personal integrity. Family worship was maintained in his household long after failing sight made it impossible for him to read the usual scripture lesson preceding the evening supplica­tion. A visit made, to him in the autumn of 1860 by the writer when a boy of eight years, in com­pany with his parents, is still a refreshing memory; this was a few months before his death and the impression made by tilt, sight of this grand pious character has been a lasting one. His bearing was that of a patriarch and his is smile like a benediction." His death occurred May 4, 1861, and was the immediate result of an accident. His wife, who was born October 15, 1771, survived him nearly six years, dying March 18, 1867. The remains of both rest in the cemetery near New Salem, Ohio.

Lorenzo Dow Wiseman, son of Samuel, was born February 3, 1812, near New Salem and grew to manhood in Fairfield County, Ohio. He was twice married; first to Frances Swayze Hooper, daughter of Rev. James Hooper (no doubt the little lad, grown up, who figured in the pioneer incident). She died July 9, 1844. The second marriage was to Ag­nes (Hufford) Hilliard, daughter of Christian and Mary Magdalena (Renner) Hufford, April 3, 1845. The second wife died December 1, 1894.

Writing of his father, Dr. Wiseman says: "He was a teacher of old time singing schools, those accessories to civilization and Christianity, the value of which cannot be estimated, perhaps, this side of the great life beyond."

When L. D. Wiseman settled in Marmont in the fall of '67, he first occupied the little old house that used to sit comfortably and composedly under the pine trees on a knoll near the railroad sta­tion. That house still exists in Culver, though it no longer is in its original position. It was mov­ed in recent years to another site. It is said to be among the most ancient, if not the very oldest house standing in the town today.

L. D. Wiseman's interest in church work and the erecting of churches has already been men­tioned, but it should be added that he directed the building of the original Methodist Church in Marmont.

The children of L. D. and Frances (Hooper) Wiseman: Wil­liam T.; Elsie (Stradley) ; Char­lotte (Rose) ; Elizabeth Agnes (who married Ezra Phelps. A daughter, Lula, married W. S Gibbons and lives at Rochester, Indiana. The mother rests in the cemetery at Culver ; Mary Ange­line (died in early childhood); Samuel Clay (also died young) ; and Isaac (who did not survive( the hour of birth). The children of L. D. and Agnes (Hufford) Wiseman: Alma, (who married Samuel Colwell Allen in 1869 and who died near Monterey and was buried in the cemetery there) ; Lorenzo D. (of Marmont) ; Mary Catherine; Benjamin Winifield Scott, (the doctor) ; Hannah Mar­garet (who became the wife of Rev. M. H. Wood and resided in Newtown, Indiana); Samuel Jud­son, and Livingston Caples.

Lorenzo Demus was the oldest son. The letter "D" usually sup­planted the odd middle name of "Demus," which was a contrac­tion of "Nicodemus," he having been named for his uncle, Dr. Nicodemus Hufford. Lorenzo was born near New Salem, Ohio, March 13, 1848, and came with the family to Union Township in '67. He taught in the public schools of both Ohio and Indiana and was, for a time, clerk in a general store, owned by Dr. G.A. Durr, at Marmont. While engag­ed in teaching school, his health failed in the winter of 1872-73. He went to Kansas the following spring. The change did not help materially, so some time late ’73 he returned with          his little family to his father's home in Marmont. where he died January 30, 1874. His wife was Francis Wilhelm, daughter of Andrew and Mary Wilhelm. She married Mr. Wiseman in 1871.

Mary Catherine, a sister of Lorenzo, was born January 27, 1850, in Ohio, and was married at Culver, August 29, 1869, to James H. Hill. They resided for some years in and near Culver, then moved to Nebraska, later to Wyoming, and finally to the State of Washington. The hus­band died in the winter of 1909-­10. There were seven children. One of them, James Rowland, graduated at West Point in June, 1909, and was assigned to duty in the U.S. Cavalry in the Philip­pines.

            Samuel Judson Wiseman was born in Ohio June 1, 1857, and came to Union Township in '67. He taught school for two years, and in 1880 entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Keokuk, Iowa. Later he abandoned medicine and went into the mer­cantile business. He was married in 184 to Mrs. Clara Virginia (McKee) Galentine of Bourbon. There were five children.

Livingston C., the youngest, was born January 7, 1860, and came to the, township in '67. In his young manhood he clerked in a general store at Burr Oak and became postmaster there. In Mar­mont later, he went into the busi­ness of dry goods and groceries with his brother Samuel, and still later became proprietor of a drug store which he conducted two or three years. For some time he was a special patrolman for the Maxinkuckee Association. His wife, Eva Brittannia (Le­land) Grove, is of Puritan stock and a descendant of Cyrus (?) Leland, one of the Pilgrim Fath­ers.

            Benjamin Winfield Scott Wise­man was called the dean of Mar­shall County physicians. He was a skilled doctor, but his remark­able personality, his wit and philosophy, often did as much for his patients as the art of medi­cine. During his practice of the profession he went through the stages of horseback, carriage and automobile transportation. Part of this time he was the only phy­sician in the Marmont commun­ity, and served the people day and night without thought of his own health. He was on the surgical staff of the Vandalia Railroad, and for a period was the surgeon at Culver Military Academy. He possessed an unusual memory and was a voracious reader. He was widely known for his humor and everyday philosophy, and his love for his fellow men. For many years he conducted a singing school in Culver.  He was post­master for eight years. Over a long period he was an active fig­ure in politics and "reveled in a hot campaign when he would write and sing campaign songs he had composed to fit the occa­sion." He died at his home in Culver November 4, 1933, aged eighty-one, and was buried in the Culver Masonic Cemetery.

            The doctor's mother, Agnes (Hufford) Wiseman, had dwelt in the twilight of life at her son's home, and it was there that she had passed away, December 1, 1894.

Ethel Huldah, youngest daugh­ter of Dr. Wiseman, became the wife of Frank Taber of Culver.

            There were very few of the pio­neers of this part of the country who came here from New Orleans. Scarcer yet were the emigrants from the old country who came all the way by water. But such is the distinction enjoyed by the Busart family, early settlers of the south end of Maxinkuckee lake.

            Mathew Busart, his wife Rosa, and their four children came from Germany by sailing vessel and landed at New Orleans in 1848. Mathew's brother had come over some years before, and had reach­ed Louisville, perhaps by way of New Orleans. Louisville was the last place Mathew heard of his brother having been. He had dropped out of the world entirely, it seemed. Mathew never heard a word from him. He had some children, too. It was thought maybe he died of yellow fever or cholera, which were bad in those days. Mathew and his fam­ily stayed in New Orleans over the winter, and from that city went to Louisville to hunt for the lost brother. They traveled by steam­boat on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. From Louisville, where they discovered no trace or clue of the brother, the family set out the next. year, about 1849, for still newer regions. They jour­neyed to Logansport by canal. There were no railroads then in the whole of the vast trans-Alle­ghany territory. They stayed at Logansport a few years, then moved to Marshall County, and bought a farm at the south end of Lake Maxinkuckee. There were 120 acres, known as the Far­rar lands now. The Busart fam­ily reached the lake about 1860.

            It was there, right near the lake, that Grandfather Busart es­tablished a permanent resting place for his flock. He built a log house in a clearing, now an open field close to the Farrar woods. The cabin stood till about fifteen years ago (around 1920), when Nicholas Busart tore it down, he recalls. The wood was given away for firewood; what was left of the old homestead kept other home-fires burning. Mathew and his family lived on this land for about ten years, then sold it and moved to Peru, Mathew died at Peru about 1888, aged around eighty, for he was born in 1807. His wife Rosa preceded him a couple of years in death. Both were buried in Peru. Mathew and Rosa Busart were both natives of Germany, and were all their children.

The      children of Matthew and Rosa Busart were Joseph, John, Rosie and Victoria, named in the order of age. The first of these children, Joseph, was born in Germany in 134, and died in 1903 on the old home farm at the south  end of Lake Maxinkuckee. His death came suddenly. He was sixty-eight. Burial was at Monterey. He was a cooper by trade. When he lived at Logansport as young man he learned the craft. About 1862, he rented a farm between Logansport and Peru, lived there a few years, and in 1865 moved to (Marshall County, near Lake Maxinkuckee. and bought what is now called the Norris farm, in the southeast corner of the lake. His father had come ahead of him, about 1860 After living there for about fifteen years, Joseph traded that place for the one his son Nicholas lived on now, consisting of 120 acres and known as the Reden farm. He moved there in 1881. His wife Mary Walle, was a native of Germany and was about fifteen years of age when she came to America. The children of Joseph an Mary Busart, six sons and four daughters, were Joseph, Jr., the oldest; John, Nicholas, William who died in infancy, George, Charles, who died in infancy; Victoria, the oldest girl:; Mary, Rose, and Anna. Four of the boys grew to maturity. Three of the girls Mary, Rose and Anna, are 1iving in 1934. Victoria, who married John Kline, died in 1925. Joseph Jr., the oldest boy, is single and lives at Logansport. John married Mary Gotcheu. Memphis, Tennessee, became their home. Nicholas J., present historian of the family, and his sister Rose are single and live on the home place. George married Annie Zurn of Monterey. Both are living on their farm at the south end of Lake Maxinkuckee. Mary, the widow of John Knepper, reside in South Bend now. Anna married Hiram Messersmith. Both are living, Logansport being their home.

An old map of the township, published around 1894, the Busart lands are on and near Lake Maxinkuckee.        The name is spell­ed Bozarth. At the southeast corner of the lake there sa repre­sented a parcel of 63.10 acres in the name of "J. Bozarth." This was Joseph. The land is the Norris place. The map a1so shows another plot in the name of .J. Bozarth, consisting of forty acres. The old Washington school house sat in a corner of it. This land is southeast of Joseph Busart lakeside property. Nicholas J. Busart now lives on the old home­stead farm. George and his fam­ily occupy a part of it.

The Walle family deserves at­tention at this time and place, since its members are closely link­ed with those of the Busart fam­ily. Mary Walle was the wife of Joseph Busart. Looking back into the past, we find that Nicho­las Walle and his wife Mary both came from Germany in 1852. They came to Now York by sail­ing ship, and from New York by rail to Buffalo. There was no railroad west of there then. Thence they traveled by boat on the Great Lakes to Chicago, and from Chicago overland to Mar­shall County. They brought a big family with them; ten, the narra­tor thinks.

            When they got to Chicago, they were broke. They did not have another dollar. In that raw and quite primitive city, they happened to meet an old German friend, who accommodated Nicholas Walle by loaning him some money to come out here to Marshall County. With that money, Nich­olas hired an ox team and wagon and drove out to this region over trails that tried the stoutest of wagons and the stoutest of riders (who did not ride a great deal of the way). Here he decided to settle, close to the lake that was called Maxinkuckee. The emi­grants from afar got their first sight of the blue waters of that lake in about the year 1853. When he bought his land, Nicholas Walle got what is now the Lew Zechiel stock farm of 160 acres at the South end of the lake. He built a log house there, and he and his wife lived all their lives on that farm. Nicholas Walle died there suddenly in 1876. His wife lived till about 1890, when she was way past eighty years old.

            The children of Nicholas and Mary Walle are on record as eight in number, five boys and three girls: Nicholas (the old­est), Joseph, Mathew, John, Nich­olas (the younger),  Mary (the oldest girl), Anna, and Elizabeth. There were two sons by the name of Nicholas. One was called "Big Nick" and the other "Little Nick." It seems that the older boy hav­ing the same name came to Amer­ica four or five years before his father. He liked the new coun­try so well that he induced his father to sell out in the old coun­try and come over, too. When the first Nicholas left the family in Germany, his parents thought they might never see him any more, so they named the new baby, the youngest son, the same as the oldest.

So it was that the oldest Walle boy came to America by himself, which was an undertaking de­manding no small amount of grit and fortitude. Nicholas bought a farm of eighty acres or there­abouts adjoining his father's farm in Union Township. He married Mary Hartman of Monterey. Both are now dead. Joseph bought forty acres adjoining, his father's farm and lived on the same land for a good many years. He mar­ried Elizabeth Lintz. Both are deceased. Mathew and John were both blacksmiths by trade, and lived and died in Indianapolis. Nicholas, the younger, lived and died in Pulaski County. Now, re­garding the children of these chil­dren: Nicholas and Mary had two sons, Peter and John, and two daughters, Anna and Margaret. All are living. John is on the home farm. Joseph and Elizabeth had three boys, Peter, Frank and Frederick, and four girls, Mary, Barbara, Emma and Katherine. Peter is living in Hammond. Matthew, John and the younger Nicholas were all married and had children. Regarding the, daugh­ters of the pioneer Nicholas and his wife Mary: The oldest, Mary, married Joseph Busart, their fam­ily having already been enumerat­ed in the history of the Busart family. Anna, the next Walle girl, married Joseph Bauer. Both died at Logansport. Elizabeth married John Hoover, and both died in Pulaski County.

In the 'seventies the Walle lands a bit southwest of Lake Maxinkuckee are shown on an old map. The nearest to the lake is the eighty acres of "J. Walley," the name being so spelled on the map. Farrar. T. Red­den also had the land adjoining the Walle land to the east. Ad­joining it to the west were older Walle lands, forty acres in the name of N. J. Walle, the father, and 39.75 acres in the name of N. Walle, the son. The Albright Church stood in the southwest corner of the latter plot.

The name of Cavender appears in the list of the Union Township settlers who came soon after the middle of the Nineteenth Century. Edward Cavender was a native of Clinton County, New York, and was born April 20. 1822. He resided in Ohio from the time he was eight years old till his first marriage, which was to Magda­lena Albright, when he removed to Cass County, Indiana. There his wife died, the mother of one child, William. In that county Edward Cavender engaged in farming for some years, then re­moved into Marshall County and located on a farm near Poplar Grove, Union Township. This farm comprised ninety acres. He cleared and improved it himself, and in 1866 settled on the land, which early in the Twentieth Cen­tury was the homestead of his son. The second marriage of Ed­ward Cavender was to Hannah E. Wickizer, who was born in Ohio, December 31, 1825, and was rear­ed and educated in that State. She was the mother of two sons and three daughters, all born in Union Township.

These children were: Kath­erine (Mrs. C. M. Stater), Anna (wife of Ziba Truax, a farmer), John C. (of Hobart, Indiana), Effie (Mrs. J.B. Gurthet, de­ceased), Jacob (of Union Town­ship).

Edward Cavender died at the age of eighty-five.  Hannah E. Cavender died at Rutland, May 8, 1903, at the age of seventy-seven.  

            Jacob one of the sons was born October 24, 1863, and lived at home, maintaining the old fam­ily homestead to which his father had removed with his family, when Jacob was but three years of age. This place consisted of 2 acres and good  buildings. Jacob was married, August 1, 1889, to Effie E. Pence, a native of Jewell County, Kansas.

The Cavender lands in the 'seventies were in the Rutland neighborhood; in fact, portions of them were where the commun­ity now stands. On the village site, E. Cavender had twenty acres. South of it, around Dis­trict School No. 5, E. Cavender had about thirty acres. And just southeast of Rutland, there, were approximately 78 acres in the name also of Cavender. To the north of Rutland, W. Caven­der had 99 acres.

There was living until com­paratively recent years a Civil War veteran by the name of Solomon Cavender. He was of another family of Cavenders, it is said, and was no near relation. He was horn in Ohio, March 11, 1848. In the beginning of the Civil War, he enlisted when but a lad of fifteen, and remained in the service until the close of the war. A few years later he came to Indiana. After the war he taught in Allen, Fulton and Mar­shall counties. Solomon Caven­der was married, September 25, 1851, to Emma Estelle Hartman of Rutland. She was the daugh­ter of Lewis and Sarah Hartman, and was horn near Tiffin, Ohio, July 16, 1563. Soon after their marriage, Solomon and Emma Cavender united with the M. E. Church at Poplar Grove. They became efficient church workers and rarely missed a service. To them were born seven children, four sons and three daughters. One of the daughters died in infancy. The other six were: Claude C. (Plymouth), Henry W. (Mishawaka), Arthur R. (Chi­cago), Russell (Milroy, Ind.), Esther M. and Mary L. (both of Knightstown).

Emma (Hartman) Cavender preceded her husband in death. She passed away December 11, 1901. Solomon Cavender died October 1, 1911, in his sixty-third year. At the time of his passing, he was in the Soldiers’ Home at Marion. The funeral and burial were at Poplar Grove. He had served as a private in Co. A, 19th Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry. He was a member of Henry Speyer Post, G. A. R., of Culver.

The early life of L. T. Van­schoiack was marked by no event of particular interest until the year 1833, when he left the fa­miliar haunts of his childhood and removed to Indiana, locating in Wayne County. In 1845, he removed to Illinois, and after a residence of five years in that state, returned to Wayne County, Indiana. There he engaged in agricultural pursuits until 1863. In that year he came to Marshall County and purchased the farm upon which he resided for a good many years.

            Although in his early life, L. T. Vanschoiack enjoyed but few edu­cational advantages, he possessed, however, a keen desire for knowl­edge and availed himself of every opportunity for gratifying that desire. By a diligent course of study he prepared himself for the vocation of teaching and taught school during the winter months. He was always provident and made it a rule to save it portion of his income, however small it might be. His fortune grew with the years. He was a plain, sensi­ble farmer, skilled in husbandry, and thrifty. He was a conserva­tive man, and honorable and up­right in all his dealings. He was liberal in his support of public enterprises and religious and edu­cational institutions. His farm on the banks of Maxinkuckee was a model. It was one of the best in this part of the country. His lands in those rather early days comprised 105.80 acres on the lake, in Section 27. The farm was pretty well down toward the south end of the lake. One pe­culiar feature was that the public highway ran right through the ­barnyard in early times. In order to pass through, a person hadto open and close gates at either side of the barnyard. East of the land, Mr. Vanschoiack had 120 acres in Section 26.   All his prop­erty was in the old Indian reserve.

Mr. Vanschoiack was married, March 27, 1838, in Wayne Coun­tv, Indiana, to Esther Bulla. There were twelve children, eight of whom were living in 1881. These were Francis A., Isaac A., Lavina E., Louisa J., William J., Elizabeth R., Elsa B., and Edward P.

Mr. Vanschoiack was active in public affairs. He held the offices of justice and township trustee.

A good many years ago, in the words of the family historian, there was born in Union County, Pennsylvania, a man named George Spangler. He married Sophia Kleckner. They- were the parents of Samuel and Levi Spangler, twins; and Eliza, Mary, Rebecca and Hannah Spangler. These children were born in Penn­sylvania. Levi was killed in the water-mill. Later, the rest of the family moved to Wooster, Wayne County, Ohio. Reuben, says the historian parenthetically, was born in Pennsylvania and later moved to Illinois, where the rest of the family lost track of him.

            It was the family of Samuel Spangler  that migrated to the region of life Tippecanoe River and Lake Maxinkuckee. Samuel was born August l0, 1807 was married to Rachel Reed in Union County, Pennsylvania. They were the parents of William, Mary Ann, Hannah, Sophia, Margaret, Catherine, Peter, Jane, Uriah, Adam and Francis. The father, Samuel, who not a native of Union County, Pennsylvania, died April 11, 1862, in Monterey, Indiana. He had removed in a comparatively early day to the vicinity of that settlement on the banks of the Tippecanoe. His wife, Rachel (Reed) Spangler, was born August 1, 1810, in Union County, Pennsylvania, and died January 9, 1899, at Maxin­kuckee, Indiana. She was burried at Monterey.

The Spangler familyr came to the Tippecanoe River location some time before the Civil War, perhaps in the 'fifties. The route of the family migration was from Pennsylvania to Ohio, then nearly direct to the farm they settled on, near Monterey. A log house was erected there, Spangler home in the new country. The location was east of the present village of Monte­rey, and was almost on the Ful­ton-Pulaski county line, about midway between Monterey and Delong. The old log house stood until quite a recent date. It was on the south side of the present road connecting Monterey and Delong.

Only one member of the family came to Union Township to settle permanently. That was Peter. It was right after the Civil War that he came and located on the east side of Lake Maxinkuckee, in the village by the same name. The date of his coming is appar­ently not on record. It was doubtless in the late 'sixties, in '67 or '68, for Peter lived at the Allegheny House ill Maxinktickee for a period of sixty-five or sixty­-six years, it has been estimated.

Peter Spangler was born in Sandusky County, Ohio, near Hessville, September 2, 1842, and was married, September 3, 1865, at Maxinkuckee, after his return from the war, to Harriet Ann Bo­gardus, only child of Abram W, and Frances Bogardus. The Bo­gardus family had come to Max­inkuckee early. It was before the Spanglers came. Harriet Ann was born September 3, 1840, in Springfield, Ohio, and lived there until six years of age. She came with her parents to New Pales­tine, Ohio, where she lived until she was fifteen. Then she came on still farther with her parents, finally to Maxinkuckee. She lived at Maxinkuckee and at Plymouth most of the time since. She passed away July 27, 1909. There were three children, two girls and a boy, all living in 1934.

It was in 1855 that Peter Spangler, with his parents, moved to Miami County, Indiana. They did not stay there for long. About 1856, when Peter was fourteen years old, they came to the vicin­ity of Monterey, the big family of them, father and mother, Peter and all his brothers and sisters. They made quite a colony all their own. When Peter died, in 1933, the rest of the brothers and sisters had passed on before him, except Adam, who was then living in Mishawaka.

The blood of battle sort of ran in the family. Peter's grandfather, George Spangler( set down as Michael in one account), was killed in the Battle at Bran­dywine, September 11, 1777, from the revolutionary side. Peter and his brother William both served in the Civil War. Peter enlisted from Plymouth and was mustered into service at Indian­apolis, February 10, 1862, as a private in Company C. 48th Regi­ment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry, under Captain William Rice and Colonel Edward J. Wood, to serve three year, during the war. The regiment was assigned to Quincie's Division, 17th Corps, Army of the Tennessee, and participated in engagements at Corinth, Missis­sippi, April 30th to May 30th; Iuka, September 19th; Corinth, October 3-4; Iuka, Vicksburg Siege, May 22-July 4, 1863. Hav­ing taken part in the Battle of Raymond, May 13; Jackson, May 14, and Champion's Hill, May 16, he was veteranized in Alabama, January, 1864, was furloughed home, and returned to Alabama until June. Then, a little later, he was busily engaged in chasing guerrillas through Georgia and protecting Sherman's railroad communications against Atlanta. He joined Sherman's army on his march to the sea, November 15­-December 10; thence through the Carolinas, ending with the Cam­paign at Raleigh. At Indianap­olis, at the close of the war, he was honorably discharged, July 15, 1865. William, Peter's brother, was captain of a colored regiment during the war.

The reminiscence has been car­ried down in the family that when Peter began voting, he voted for Abraham Lincoln, casting, his first ballot, it is said, for the Great Emancipator.

When the war was over had Peter had married, he and his bride stayed a while at Maxinkuckee, but soon afterward went to Plymouth to live. They spent only a short time there before re­turning to Maxinkuckee. In that community, Peter owned and sponsored a hotel or fisherman's paradise, the Allegheny House, and it was there in past and bygone days that many of the year celebrities of Indiana, and in fact the United States, would go for rest and recreation. We are told, also, that it was at Spangler's widely-known inn that General Lew Wallace wrote his first chap­ters of "Ben Hur." In later years, Peter was a carpenter and brick mason and helped to construct many of the buildings of Culver Military Academy.

Peter was the seventh child of Samuel and Rachel Reed Spang­ler. There was another Peter Spangler in the township. He was Peter J., a preacher and for some time the pastor of Zion Church. Peter Spangler of Maxinkuckee had no middle initial.

At the home of his daughter, Mrs. Laura Babcock, at Roches­ter, Peter Spangler passed away, August 17, 1933. He lacked only sixteen days of being ninety-one. His three children were: Laura Ellen, who married Dr. Isaac L. Babcock. There were eight chil­dren, three now deceased. The doctor died in 1913, The widow is still living. Frances Jennetta, Peter Spangler's second daughter, was married to Hollis N. Blair, There were two daughters. The parents and children are all liv­ing. George McOuat, the young­est of Peter's family, was born at Maxinkuckee July 5, 1872, and in 1896 was married to Margaret C. Knaur at Otterbein, Indiana. There was one son, Byron, born to them. All are living, the parents in Culver and Byron in Indianap­olis.

Judge William Spangler, Pe­ter's brother, was educated in the public schools of Ohio and re­ceived his collegiate training at Westerville College. He studied law in the office of Judge Finne­frock at Fremont, Ohio, with ex­-President Rutherford B. Hayes as a fellow student. Then he prac­ticed law in Missouri, at Plym­outh and Monterey, and moved to Winamac in 1868. He was the first judge of this 44th judicial circuit in Indiana, having been appointed in March, 1883, by Governor Albert G. Porter. and served until November 12, 1884. He practiced law in Winamac un­til his death in that community, January 18, 1908. His son John, an only child, is a lawyer there now. William Spangler was born in Union County, Pennsylvania, April 16, 1831, and was married in '65 to Mary Ii. Phipps.

Turning to the family record, we find the following information concerning the other brothers and sisters, the children of Samuel and Rachel Spangler: Mary Ann was born in Union County, June 17, 1833; was married to Henry Eickes; and died September 23, 1899, in Ohio. Margaret was born in Union County, April 21, 1838; was married in '66 to Daniel Armstrong; and died at Plym­outh, December 30, 1876. There were no children. Catherine was born January 21, 1840; mar­ried Eli Parker in 1860; and died at Culver, August 7, 1906. There were six children. Hannah mar­ried George Washington Wylie, and died at Rochester, December 20, 1905. There were three chil­dren. Sophia was born October 15, 1836, and died at Plymouth, January 31, 1923. She married Joseph Lopp in '56. He died in 1910. There were four children. Jane was born March 11, 1844, and died at Monterey, September l3, 1865. Uriah was born Janu­ary 27, 1846, and died in Novem­ber, 1905. Adam was born Feb­ruary 10, 1848. He married Elizabeth Demont. There were five children. Francis C. was born February 8, 1850, and died at Maxinkuckee, August 6, 1878. He was buried at Monterey.